1946, Jul 4. The US declares the Independence of the Philippines.
1946, Sep 30. The Amended Tenancy Act is promulgated. It accommodates the landlords, thereby increasing the dissatisfaction of the peasants and workers. In the sequel the Huks of central Luzon continuously expand their armed struggle to the provinces of Bataan and Zambales.
1947, Jan 28. President Roxas issues an amnesty proclamation to collaborators and releases Claro M. Recto, Jose P. Laurel, Benigno Ramos, Jose Vargas, and Jose C. Zulueta, among others.
1947, Mar 6. President Roxas declares the Hukbalahap illegal, as it is alleged to have been organized and maintained to commit sedition and to overthrow the government by force. In the following months, the Huks lay low and occupy themselves with the organization of urban workers and the activation of labor unions. Labor unions are integrated into the Congress of Labor organization, headed by Jose and Jesus Lava.
1947, Apr 15. President Roxas dies from a heart attack at Clark Air Field, Pampanga during a visit to the US military installation. He is succeeded by his Vice-President Elpidio Quirino.
1947, Apr 17. Quirino takes his oath of office as President of the Philippines. He promises the restoration of people's faith in the government by solving the most pressing problem, the rebellion in central Luzon, through negotiation with the rebels.
1947, Jun 21. President Quirino issues an proclamation promising amnesty to the rebels on the condition that they present themselves with all arms and ammunition to the duly constituted authorities.
1947, Aug 15. The Huks change their name to Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng Bayan (Liberation Army Movement) and establish 6 regional commands, 4 more than originally.
1947, Sep 8. The Philippine representative to the Far Eastern Commission, Carlos P. Romulo, signs the Japanese Peace Treaty. The Philippines is to obtain large reparations from Japan.
1950, Aug 31. President Quirino appoints Ramon Magsaysay (Aug 31, 1907 - Mar 17, 1957) Secretary of National Defense. Magsaysay is also the choice of the US as he is believed to be a leader who can recapture the people's confidence, and who furthermore is undoubtedly loyal to the US.
1950, Oct 21. President Quirino suspends the privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus to be able to detain communists beyond the legal 6 hour limit for filing charges. The credit for the arrest of numerous communist leaders like Commander Arthur or Taciano Rizal, Faustino Tenorio, Paulino Huertas, and Casto Alenjandrino among others, goes to Magsaysay who is built up by the American Edward Landsdale, a CIA operative.
1951, Aug. The National Movement for Free Election (NAMFREL) is founded to insure free and honest elections. Jaime Ferrer is the first NAMFREL director. The organization is funded by the CIA. Landsdale prepares for the presidential candidacy of Magsaysay in the 1953 election.
1953, Nov 10. Ramon Magsaysay is elected President. Magsaysay garners 2,912,992 votes while Quirino obtains only 1,315,991. Magsaysay views as his responsibility to give personal attention and render on-the-spot solutions to people's everyday problems. He remains very receptive to any policy suggested to him by Landsdale.
1953, Dec 30. Magsaysay takes his oath of office.
1954. President Magsaysay designs the Agricultural Tenancy Act as his land reform program. This act allows tenants to shift from share tenancy to leasehold, reduces land rentals and prohibits ejection of tenants except for just cause as determined by the Court of Agrarian Relations.
1954, Jul 21. The Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty is signed in Manila, creating the South East Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO). The organization aims to stop communist expansion in the area. Aside from the Philippines, the only other Southeast Asian member is Thailand. Other members are the United States, Great Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand and Pakistan.
1954, Dec 15. The Laurel-Langley Agreement is signed by the main negotiators, former President Jose P. Laurel and James L. Langley. This agreement opens the entire Philippine economy to US corporations.
1955. The Land Reform Act passes, which provides that private agricultural land with an area of more than 300 hectares, if owned by an individual, or 600 hectares, if owned by a corporation, can be expropriated.
1957, Mar 17. President Magsaysay dies in a plane crash in Cebu. Vice-President Carlos P. Garcia assumes the presidency.
1957, Nov 14. A presidential election is held with Carlos P. Garcia (Nov 4, 1896 - Jun 14, 1971), of the Nacionalista Party, Jose Yulo of the Liberal Party, Manuel Manahan of the Progressive Party of the Philippines, and Claro M. Recto of the Lapiang Makabansa. Garcia wins the election by over 600,000 votes against his closest rival, Jose Yulo.
1958, Aug 28. The National Economic Council officially promulgates the "Filipino first" policy calling for preferential treatment for Filipinos. The policy is not favored by the US.
1959. In elections for 8 of the 24 senators, Ferdinand Marcos (Sep 11, 1917-Sep 28, 1989) of the Liberal Party gets the most votes. The man most closely associated with Garcia, Juan Pajo, is badly defeated, foreshadowing the fate of President Garcia in the coming election.
1961, Nov 7. Diosdado Macapagal is elected President with 651,626 votes over Garcia. Emmanuel Pelaez is elected Macapagal's Vice-President.
1961, Dec 30. Diosdado Macapagal and Emmanuel Pelaez take their oaths of office.
1962, Jan 21. President Macapagal lifts exchange controls, eliminates licenses on imports and leaves as the only requirement for imports coverage by a letter of credit, accompanied by a special time deposit. The value of the peso floats in the free market. All this is seen as adversely affecting the Philippine economy. The unlimited flow of imported consumer goods subjects local products to crippling competition. Devaluation invites foreign investors due to the high buying power of the dollar.
1965, Nov 9. In presidential elections, Ferdinand Marcos wins with 3,554,840 votes over Diosdado Macapagal with 3,187,752. Marcos' running mate, Fernando Lopez, is elected Vice-President.
1965, Dec 30. Marcos and Lopez are sworn into office.
1967, Aug 16 to 20. Mt Taal erupts for 4 days
1967. In Mindanao, Nur Misuari organizes the Muslim National League, a secessionist movement.
1968, Aug 2. At 4:30, a strong earthquake on Luzon destroys the Ruby Apartment Tower in Santa Cruz, Manila, burying hundreds.
1968, Mar 28. Muslim youth undergoing military training in Corregidor are massacred by the Philippine army while escaping from their secret military training camp. The incident is known to Muslims as the Jabidah Massacre.
1968, May. As a result of the Jabidah Massacre, Muslims organize groups to fight for the complete separation of Mindanao and Sulu Islands from the Philippine Republic. Nur Misuari revives his group under the new name Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) and creates its military arm, the Bangsa Moro Army. Datu Udtong Matalam establishes the Muslim Independence Movement.
1968, Dec 26. A new Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) is founded by Jose Maria Sison (born Feb 8, 1939) and other young intellectuals of the Kilusang Makabayan (Nationalist Youth), the youth organization of the old Communist Party.
1969, Mar 29. The New People's Army, the military arm of the Communist Party of the Philippines, is formally organized by Jose Maria Sison and Bernabe Buscayno alias Kumander Dante in Capas, Tarlac.
1969, Oct 29 to Dec 10. Mt Taal issues lava for 42 days.
1969, Nov 7. Marcos and Lopez are re-elected. Marcos garners 5,017,343 votes, his contender, Sergio Osmena, Jr just 3,043,122 votes. The election, in which Marcos campaigns with the slogan "This nation will be great again", has been considered the dirtiest in Philippine history with win-at-all-cost tactics using guns, goons and gold to influence voters allegedly applied by the Marcos camp.
1970. In the first three months, youth activism is born in the so-called first quarter storm. Demonstrations, strikes and riots spring up over issues such as lack of opportunity for the poor, colonial economy, graft and corruption, imperialism, feudalism and capitalism. Violence erupts in two areas in Mindanao, Cotabato and Lanao del Norte provinces. Feliciano Luis, a Christian Ilongo settler in Mindanao organizes a band known as the Ilagas (rats) to attack the Moros. The Moros, on the other hand, have the Blackshirts, the military arm of the Muslim Independence Movement. Both are heavily armed.
1970, Nov 17. An election for 315 members of the Constitutional Convention is held.
1971, Jun 1. The Constitutional Convention assembles to rewrite the 1935 Constitution. The Convention elects former President Carlos Garcia as its head.
1971, Jun 14. Garcia dies and former President Diosdado Macapagal takes over the top position at the Convention.
1971, Aug 21. At about 21:30, Plaza Miranda in Quiapo, Manila is bombed while the Liberal Party is holding a rally proclaiming its candidates for the mid-term senate elections. Ten people are killed and some 100 are injured including 8 senatorial candidates, among them Jovito Salonga. The identity of the perpetrators of the bombing remains unknown.
1971, Aug 22. The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus is suspended by Marcos on the presumption that unlawful elements in The Country had banded together and entered into a conspiracy to commit insurrection and rebellion to overthrow the duly constituted government.
1971, Nov 22. A local election is held. In an incident in Barrio Tacub, Kauswagan, Cotabato del Norte, 40 Muslims are killed by government troops who fire at a bus. The reason for the killing remains unknown. The incident is called the Tacub massacre. It stimulates the brewing rivalry between Christian and Muslim groups.
1972. Suspicious bombing incidents increase all over The Country . The MNLF launches its campaign for the independence of the Muslim provinces.
1972, Sep 21. President Marcos signs the Martial Law Edict (at that time not publicly announced).
1972, Sep 22. At approximately 21:00, Marcos places the entire country under martial law (at that time without the public knowing about it).
1972, Sep 23. At around 12:10, Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr. is arrested in his room at the Manila Hilton Hotel (now Pavilion). No formal charges are filed against him to justify the arrest. However, he is accused of involvement in subversive activities and imprisoned at Fort Bonifacio in solitary confinement and under strict security. Also arrested are Jovito Salonga, Eva Kalaw, Ramon Mitra, Chino Roces, Eugenio Lopez, Jr, John Osmena and others.
1972, Sep 23. The implementation of martial law is officially announced at about 20:00. Marcos explains that martial law is intended to create a new society through the removal of anarchy and the maintenance of peace and order. Many more people are arrested: politicians and outspoken opponents of Marcos, journalists, teachers and members of labor, student and peasant organizations. 500,000 guns are confiscated. Congress is suspended. A curfew is imposed from 24:00 to 4:00.
1972, Sep 26. The whole country is proclaimed a land reform area and an Agrarian Reform Program is decreed.
1972, Oct 21. Marcos passes the Tenant's Emancipation Patent, intended to launch land transfer to over 450,000 tenants. 183,647 of them receive Land Transfer Certificates, establishing their right to benefit from the land reform, and some 15,000 tenants become amortizing owners.
1972, Oct 21. The first major armed defiance of martial law takes place in Lanao del Sur. Several hundred Moros who are members of the Mindanao Revolutionary Council for Independence attack the Philippine Constabulary headquarters in Marawi City, seize the Mindanao State University and attempt to take the portal bridge on the Marawi-Iligan road.
1972, Oct 22. The battle between the Moros and the government troops ends with the latter regaining control of the city.
1972, Nov 29. The Constitutional Convention passes the new Constitution of the Philippines.
1973. Misuari leaves The Country for Libya to solicit armed support from Muslim countries for the war in Mindanao.
1973, Jan 10. A plebiscite referendum is held among the citizens' assemblies to ratify the new Constitution, to approve Marcos' continuation of martial law, and to place a moratorium on elections for 7 years. The result favors the government's proposal by 95%. Marcos does not earn credibility, however, as the people are not asked directly but are only represented by their barangay officials, many of them in office because of being allied with the Marcos camp.
1973, Apr. The National Democratic Front (NDF), the united front organization of the Communist Party of the Philippines, is formally organized.
1973, Jul 27. A referendum is held and by virtue of its results, President Marcos is allowed to continue in office beyond 1973, the year he would otherwise have become disqualified from running for re-election. There are 15,290,639 yes votes against 462,859 no votes.
1974, Feb 27. A referendum is held in the Greater Manila area to make legitimate the restructuring of the local government. Its result empowers the President to appoint local elective officials with terms expiring Dec 31, 1975. It further allows the President to exercise more power under martial law.
1974, Dec 1. The essay entitled Specific Characteristics of Our People's War, written by Jose Maria Sison under his nom de guerre Amado Guerrero, is published. It deals with Communist strategies and tactics suited to wage a revolutionary war in a country like the Philippines. The strategies and tactics recommended are basically Maoist.
1976, Jan 4. The spokesman of the New Peoples Army and a prominent pre-martial law journalist, Satur Ocampo, is arrested in Olongapo City.
1976, Jul 1. The long essay, Our Urgent Tasks, by Amado Guerrero is published in the first issue of Revolution, the official publication Communist Party of the Philippines. This essay identifies the tactics and strategies for a successful overthrow of what is called the US-Marcos dictatorship and the attainment of socialism.
1976, Aug 26. In Mexico, Pampanga, the NPA head Bernabe Buscayno a.k.a. Kumander Dante is arrested by the military. He is detained at Camp Olivas in San Fernando, Pampanga.
1976, Oct 16. Another plebiscite is held, the result of which allows the President to continue martial law. It also ratifies some amendments to the 1973 constitution, the most anomalous of which is Amendment No. 6. This gives the president awesome powers to issue decrees, orders and letters of instruction which form part of the law of the land. The president can exercise these powers when, in his judgment, there exists a grave emergency or threat thereof, or when either the Interim Batasang Pambansa or the regular National Assembly fail to act adequately.
1976, Dec 23. In Tripoli Libya, the Tripoli Agreement is signed between three parties: the Marcos government, the Moro National Liberation Front and the Organization of Islamic Conference. The Philippine government is represented by Deputy Minister Carmello Barbeiro. Further signatories are Ali Abdulsalaam, Foreign Affairs Minister of Libya, Nur Misuari of the Moro National Liberation Front, and Amado Kayem Gayer, the Secretary General of the Organization of Islamic Conference. The Tripoli Agreement provides for full autonomy of the Muslim region in the southern Philippines, composed of 13 provinces. These provinces are Basilan, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Lanao del Norte, Maguindanao, Davao del Sur, South Cotabato, North Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat and Palawan.
1976, Aug 17 An earthquake of 7.8 magnitude and a following tsunami (flood wave) kills 8,000 people on and off the coast of Mindanao.
1977, Jan 20. The Armed Forces of the Philippines enters into a ceasefire agreement with the MNLF. The negotiating panel reaching the agreement, was composed of Romulo Espaldon for the Philippine Armed Forces, Hashim Salamat, a MNLF leader operating in Lanao and Tawi-Tawi provinces, and Dimas Pundato, another MNLF leader operating in Basilan.
1977, Mar 4. President Marcos issues a decree creating the autonomous Bangsa Moro Islamic Government which gives autonomy to the 13 provinces and calls for the withdrawal of all armed forces of the government. Regions 9 and 12 become autonomous but remain separated from each other.
1977, Aug 17. A referendum is held in the 13 Muslim provinces, regarding their merger. The result of the referendum does not favor the merger, and therefore it is not implemented, a fact that violates the Tripoli Agreement.
1977, Nov 10. The CPP head Jose Maria Sison is arrested in Pangasinan by the military and detained in the Military Security Command Unit in Fort Bonifacio.
1977, Dec 16. A referendum is held, the result of which again empowers the President to continue in office, and to become Prime Minister as well. Marcos' proposals are shown to be supported by no less than 92% of the voters.
1978. Due to the arrest of Bernabe Buscayno and Jose Maria Sison in 1976 and 1977 respectively, Rodolfo Salas takes over the leadership of the Communist Party of the Philippines.
1978, Apr 8. Members of the Interim Batasang Pambansa, a temporary parlament, are elected. There are 200 seats, of which 165 are elective and 35 appointive; 14 are reserved for various functional sectors. Of the 165 elected candidates, 113 belong to the administration party. The other 42 come from various opposition parties.
1979, Jul 15. President Marcos issues as presidential decree a charter for the autonomous regions, creating regional legislative assemblies and executive councils.
1980, Jan 30. Local elections are held in conjunction with a plebiscite to amend the constitution. The constitional amendment sets 70 years as retirement age for members of the Supreme Court as well as judges of inferior courts.
1980, May 8. After 7 years and 7 months of solitary confinement, Benigno Aquino, Jr is released to undergo a delicate triple by-pass heart surgery in the US. On the same day, Aquino leaves for the States.
1981, Jan 17. Martial law is lifted in the entire country due to the forthcoming three day visit of the Pope.
1981, Feb 17. Pope John Paul II arrives in the Philippines.
1981, Apr 7. A plebiscite is held to amend the Constitution, the positive result of which allows the establishment of a modified parliamentary system in which the President is both head of state and chief executive. The amendment also provides an age qualification of at least 50 years for presidential candidates, disqualifying opposition stalwart Benigno Aquino, Jr who would be only 48 at the time of the scheduled presidential election.
1981, Jun 16. A presidential election is held. Marcos wins by 88%, as his rivals, Alejo Santos of the Nacionalista Party and Bartolome Cabangbang of the Federal Party are not much more than mock candidates. Simultaneously, a referendum is held to authorize barangay elections in 1982.
1982, Apr 21. The tagged chairman of the National Democratic Front, Horacio Morales, is arrested. He is the former Executive Vice-President of the Development Authority of the Philippines, a government agency.
1983, Aug 21. Benigno Aquino, Jr is assassinated at the Manila International Airport upon arrival from the US. As the assassination is believed to be perpetrated with the knowledge and tolerance of the administration, the reputation of the Marcos regime sinks to an all time low. Demonstrations sweep The Country . As a sign of protest, yellow confetti is thrown from top floor windows in Makati every afternoon. The assassination is also the reason for a slump in the economy as fewer investors come, due to the dubious reputation of the administration. Investigations are made, fact-finding committees are formed and trials are held to find and prosecute the culprits, but the case drags on and remains basically unsolved.
1984, May 16. Elections for the Batasang Pambansa are held. The election seems like a ploy to silence the mounting protest against the regime. The opposition is allowed to participate to a much bigger extent than in previous elections. The election results give the opposition a credible showing, as it is able to obtain 43% of the votes cast by the people. However, the control of the parlament remains in the hands of the President and the administration party since out of the 190 seats of the Batasan, 120 are won by the Kilusan ng Bagong Lipunan (New Society Movement) and the Partido Nacionalista ng Pilipinas, both supporting Marcos. 58 seats are won by the opposition. 12 members are appointed by the President.
1984, Sep 10 to 23. Eruptions of Mayon Volcano near Legaspi City; volcanic ash covers the surounding countryside.
1985, May 5. Satur Ocampo escapes from the his military guards when he attends the National Press Club election.
1985, Sep 20. During a protest demonstration in Escalante, Negros Occidental, the military fires at the demonstrators killing 21 and injuring 30 more persons. The incident is known as the Escalante Massacre.
1986, Feb 7. A presidential election is held with Corazon Aquino (born Jan 25, 1933), the widow of the assassinated opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr, running against Marcos. Salvador Laurel (born Nov 18, 1928) is her candidate for Vice-President. During the official counting of votes, Marcos retains a lead. However, this lead lacks credibility as widespread cheating is reported. Marcos is not believed to be more popular with the Philippine electorate than Cory.
1986, Feb 14. Parties of the opposition, the UNIDO and LABAN, begin protest rallies against the election results as they are convinced that massive fraud has been committed. Corazon Aquino calls for a boycott of all establishments closely associated with the administration.
1986, Feb 22. At about 15:00, Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile barricades himself together with some followers, many of them young colonels, in the Ministry of National Defense in Camp Aguinaldo.
1986, Feb 22. The Deputy Chief of Staff of the Armed Force of the Philippines, General Fidel Ramos, joins the forces of Enrile at about 17:00.
1986, Feb 22. The event is aired to the public at approximately 18:45.
1986, Feb 22. At 21:00, the archbishop of Manila, Jaime Cardinal Sin, through Radio Veritas gives support to the Enrile rebellion. Simultaneously, Agapito Aquino, the brother of the slain opposition leader, forms a people power group that barricades Camp Crame and Camp Aguinaldo, to protect the rebellious military from an attack by Marcos forces. The barricade begins with not more than 20 persons at about 21:30 but soon grows bigger and bigger.
1986, Feb 25. At noontime, Ferdinand Marcos takes his oath of office as President of the Philippines, together with Arturo Tolentino, who takes the oath of Vice-President, before Supreme Court Chief Justice Ramon Aquino. At the same time, Corazon Aquino and Salvador Laurel also take oaths of office as President and Vice-President, respectively, before their newly assigned Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Claudio Teehankee.
1986, Feb 26. Marcos, with his loyal follower, Chief-of-Staff of the Armed Forces Fabian Ver, leaves Malacanang Palace at 21:00 for Clark Air Base. Shortly before, Marcos had received a call from US Senator Paul Laxalt promising refuge for him and his family. From Clark, Marcos and his entourage fly to Honolulu, putting an end to his 20 year reign over the Philippines.
1986, Feb 27. The Alsa Masa (Uprising of the Masses) is organized in Agdao district, Davao City. It is an armed civilian anti-communist organization, whose recruits include some former members of the NPA. Its founding chairman is Rolando "Boy Ponsa" Cagay.
1986, Mar 3. NPA rebels kill 14 policemen and 1 trooper in an ambush in Banugsakan, Guinobatan, Albay. The incident indicates that the NPA will not give up armed struggle after the fall of Marcos.
1986, Mar 1. Horacio Morales is released from detention.
1986, Mar 5. Jose Maria Sison is released from his 8 years and three months detention in Fort Bonifacio. Also released are Bernabe Buscayno, Ruben Alegre, the identified head of the NPA Sparrow Unit, and Alex Buendo, the head of the armed citizen's partisans in Metro Manila.
1986, Mar 25. President Aquino organizes a revolutionary government and issues the Freedom Constitution to replace the one tailored in 1973 for Marcos. The Freedom Constitution is to remain in effect until a new constitution can be written and ratified.
1986, Apr. The Nakasaka (United People for Peace), a group similar to the Alsa Masa, is organized by Douglas Cagas in Davao del Sur.
1986, Apr 9. The MNLF enters with the government a ceasefire agreement for Region 9. The agreement is called the Marawi City Joint Declaration. Region 9 combines the following provinces: Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Tawi-Tawi, Basilan, Jolo and Palawan. The signatories on the MNLF side are Macapanton Abbas and Dante Indiala. The government is represented by Brig. Gen. Rodrigo Gutang.
1986, May 25. President Aquino appoints 50 members to a Constitutional Commission. The commission is chaired by former Justice of the Supreme Court, Cecilia Munoz Palma.
1986, Jun 1. This date marks the 100th day of the Aquino Administration. During this period, there were 68 reported insurgency related incidents, with 1,485 casualties. These casualties included 641 rebels; 450 troopers, policemen and paramilitary men; and 394 civilians.
1986, Jun 2. The Constitutional Commission begins its sessions.
1986, Jul 3. Peace negotiations of the government with the National Democratic Front begin. The government is represented by Ramon Mitra, Jose Diokno (deputized by Serena Diokno) and Teofisto Guingona, while the NDF negotiators are Satur Ocampo, Antonio Zumel and Carolina Malay.
1986, Jul 6. Marcos' running mate at the February 7 election, Arturo Tolentino, seizes the Manila Hotel with 200 troops loyal to him and takes an oath of office as Acting President of the Philippines.
1986, Jul 6. After the oath taking, Tolentino forms a rebel government that demands the ouster of Corazon Aquino.
1986, Jul 8. After 40 hours the Tolentino coup ends at 5:30 with the surrender of its participants.
1986, Sep 2. Misuari arrives from Libya to wage a guerilla campaign for a separate state for the five million Muslims living in the Philippines.
1986, Sep 5. President Aquino and Nur Misuari meet at Zamboanga City to discuss the possibility to end the nagging Muslim insurgency.
1986, Sep 9. Nur Misuari starts his series of consultations with other MNLF chiefs.
1986, Sep 29. The chairman of the Communist Party of the Philippines, Rodolfo Salas alias Kumander Bilog, is arrested by the military at Taft Avenue, Malate. Also arrested are his wife, Josefina Cruz, and Jose Concepcion, his security escort. They are all taken to Camp Crame in Quezon City.
1986, Nov 23. President Aquino formally dissolves her 25 member cabinet to make a fresh start. Most ministers, however, are re-appointed. Among the cabinet members replaced is Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile. Appointed new Minister of Defense is Gen. Rafael Ileto.
1986, Nov 27. A Ceasefire Agreement of the Government with the communist National Democratic Front is signed. The signatories are Teofisto Guingona and Ramon Mitra for the government and Satur Ocampo, Antonio Zumel and Carolina Malay for the NDF.
1986, Dec 10. The 60-day ceasefire between the government and the communists begins.
1986, Dec 26. Preliminary talks for the peace negotiations between the MNLF and the Philippine government begin in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The MNLF send 20 representatives headed by Nur Misuari. The government panel is composed of Aquilino Pimentel, Agapito Aquino and Norberto Gonzales.
1987, Jan 4. During the peace talks with the Philippine government in Jeddah, the MNLF through Nur Misuari, agrees to autonomy rather than independence for parts of Mindanao.
1987, Jan 22. 16 people die and 60 are injured, when at approximately 17:00 some 6,000 demonstrators try to cross the Mendiola Bridge to reach Malacanang Palace and are fired on by the military. The demonstrators are farmers from central Luzon, organized by the Kilusang Magbubukid ng Pilipinas (Farmers' Movement of the Philippines), headed by Jaime Tadeo. The farmers intended to talk to the President about her land reform.
1987, Jan 27. 70 soldiers of the Blue Thunder Command, headed by Col. Bertuldo dela Cruz, attack Villamor Air Base. Simultaneously, some 600 rebel soldiers under the leadership of Col. Oscar Canlas seize channel 7 and radio station DZBB. The two groups attempt to overthrow the Aquino government.
1987, Jan 29. The rebels' takeover of channel 7 ends at approximately 3:30 when the last rebel soldiers surrender to the authorities. In the aborted coup 1 dies and 16 are injured.
1987, Feb 2. A plebiscite is held to ratify the new Constitution. 81% of the electorate votes yes.
1987, Feb 6. The 60-day ceasefire between the government and the NDF ends.
1987, Feb 9. The peace talks for Muslim autonomy continue in Manila. Surigao del Norte Governor Wencelito Andanar is the chief government representative. Three rebel groups are invited, namely: the MNLF, MNLF-reformists, and the MILF (Moro Islamic Liberation Front). The MNLF is represented by Mujalab Hashim, the MNLF-reformists send Napic Bides and Macabanton Abbas as their representatives. The MILF, however, does not participate, as it demands that for its representation in the peace talks, it must be invited through the Organization of Islamic Conference or through the Muslim League. It is agreed at this meeting that the government and MNLF groups will submit their respective proposals for full autonomy for Mindanao.
1987, Feb 11. The new Constitution takes effect. It provides for a republican form of government and a bicameral legislature composed of a House of Representatives and a Senate.
1987, Apr 9. The peace talks of the government with the MNLF are indefinitely suspended due to an armed clash between government soldiers and Muslim rebels in Zamboanga del Sur. The MNLF considers this a virtual declaration of war. Investigation of the incident is ordered.
1987, Apr 19. Some 300 communist forces and military men clash in Sitio Akle, San Ildefonso, Bulacan.
1987, Apr 22. The four day battle in Sitio Akle, San Ildefonso Bulacan ends. The military estimated 33-48 NPA casualties while the rebels claimed to have killed at least 18 soldiers.
1987, May 11. Elections are held for 200 members of the House of Representatives and 24 Senators. Elected are 22 candidates of the Aquino coalition Lakas ng Bayan, namely: Jovito Salonga, Liberal Party; Agapito Aquino, Lakas ng Bayan; Orlando Mercado, Unido; John Osmena, Unido-Lakas; Edgardo Angara, Independent; Alberto Romulo, Lakas; Leticia Shahani, Lakas; Neptali Gonzales, Lakas; Rene Saguisag, Independent; Joey Lina, PDP-Laban; Wigberto Tanada, Nationalist bloc; Sotero Laurel, Unido; Heherson Alvarez, Lakas; Raul Manglapus, NUCD; Teofisto Guingona, Bandila; Vicente Paterno, Independent; Vitor Ziga, Independent; Ernesto Maceda, Unido; and Aquilino Pimentel, PDP-Laban; Ernesto Herrera, Laban; Mamintal Tamano, Laban; Santanina Rasul, independent. Only two opposition candidates make it to the Senate: Joseph Estrada and Juan Ponce Enrile, both from the opposition coalition Grand Alliance for Democracy.
1987. Compared to 1986, insurgency clashes in 1987 are down by 25%-30% and the average figure of daily civil war deaths drops from 14 to 9.
1987, Jun 30. Jovito Salonga is elected President of the Senate.
1987, Jul 3. Ramon Mitra is elected Speaker of the House of Representatives.
1987, Jul 15. President Aquino signs Executive Order No. 220, creating the Cordillera Administrative Region, the pre-autonomy arrangement for the provinces of Abra, Benguet, Bontoc, Kalinga-Apayao, Mountain Province and Baguio City.
1987, Jul 23. President Aquino signs Executive Order No. 229 implementing a 50 billion pesos Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP). The program aims to transfer ownership to tenants of various kinds of public and private agricultural lands except those held by cultural minorities. Terms of implementation, though, remain for decision by Congress.
1987, Jul 23. Three unidentified men believed to be members of the Alex Boncayao Brigade of the NPA shoot and kill Sgt. Rolando Dularte in Sta Mesa, Manila. It is the first in a series of killings of policemen in Manila. In the next 6 months, 16 policemen are killed in Metro Manila by so-called communist sparrows.
1987, Jul 26. The new Philippine Congress, elected May 8, 1987, meets for its first session.
1987, Aug 2. The Secretary of Local Government, Jaime Ferrer, and his driver, are assassinated by the NPA at about 18:00 in Paranaque, Metro Manila. Jaime Ferrer is the highest official assassinated in the history of the Philippine Republic.
1987, Aug 21. Nur Misuari rejects an offer for new peace talks between the government and the MNLF.
1987, Aug 22. Approximately 200 communist rebels raid and burn down the town hall and police station of Manapla, Negros Oriental, leaving 5 dead.
1987, Aug 26. A Welgang Bayan (National Strike) in protest against the fuel price increases paralyzes public transport and all other economic activities in Metro Manila and almost the whole country.
1987, Aug 27. A 17-hour battle of attrition erupts at about 11:00 between communist rebels and government troops on the outskirts of La Carlota City, Negros Occidental. There are around 100 rebels and an equal number of government troops. The encounter claims the lives of 30 to 40 rebels.
1987, Aug 28. Col. Gringo Honasan leads the so far bloodiest coup attempt against the Aquino Administration.
1:30 800 right-wing rebel soldiers in 8 commandeered Baliwag Transit buses and flatbed trucks arrive in Manila from Fort Magsaysay in Laur, Nueva Ecija. 300 soldiers attack Malacanang. A gunfight takes place hitting President Aquino's son, Benigno III, and killing his 3 bodyguards.
2:00 Rebel soldiers' enter the Broadcast Plaza to gain control of Channels 2 and 4 and several radio stations housed in the complex. Gunfights begin and the Camelot Hotel, near the Broadcast Plaza, is seized by the mutineers.
2:25 Mutineers fire indiscriminately on civilians at Nagtahan bridge near Malacanang Palace, killing 5.
3:15 Rebel soldiers move from the palace to Camp Aguinaldo, the army's headquarters in Quezon City.
4:00 A group of rebel soldiers occupies the ground floor of the main building of Camp Villamor, the Air Force base, and holds Air Force chief Maj. Gen. Antonio Sotelo captive.
7:00 The airport in Legaspi City is seized by mutineers.
10:00 President Aquino through Metro Manila governor Jejomar Binay orders Gen. Alfredo Lim of the Western Police District to retake Channel 4.
11:45 Rebel soldiers seize Channel 13. A mutineer officer appears on TV calling for popular support.
12:30 Pro-government battalions begin an attack on Fort Aguinaldo.
13:30 Three local camps in Cebu City are taken over by mutineers in support of the ongoing mutiny in Manila.
14:30 President Aquino appears on nationwide television proclaiming an all-out war against the mutineers and ordering the Armed Forces to terminate the mutiny as soon as possible.
15:00 About one fourth of the rebel soldiers surrender to government forces in various sites of Metro Manila.
16:15 Government troops, using World War II vintage Tora-Tora planes attack the mutineers' strongholds and installations seized by them, setting afire the three story General Headquarters Building in Camp Aguinaldo.
17:30 Government soldiers force their way into Camp Aguinaldo with two tanks and armored personnel carriers starting an all-out assault against the mutineers.
18:00 Government troops regain control of Camp Olivas in San Fernando, Pampanga, which was earlier seized by the mutineers.
21:00 Villamor Air Base is secured by government troops.
22:30 The PC chief of Nueva Ecija, Lt. Col. Eduardo Martillano, and the mutineers commanded by him surrender to government troops with their weapons ending the seizure of the Camelot Hotel. Honasan flees aboard a helicopter.
1987, Aug 29. At 7:00, mutineers at Camp Aguinaldo, in Cebu City and Legaspi City surrender. Camp Olivas is closed and rebel soldiers there flee. By 9:30, the situation in The Country is completely under control of the Aquino government. The attempted coup cost the lives of 12 government troops, 19 mutineers and 22 civilians. Hundreds are wounded.
1987, Aug 30. A total of 805 mutineers who surrendered to the government are detained on two Navy ships in the middle of Manila Bay. The entire 830 man corps of cadets of the Philippine Military Academy stages a hunger strike demanding humane treatment for the mutineers and expressing solidarity with the rebels' cause.
1987, Sep 2. Near Davao, 32 communist rebels are killed by two military helicopter gunships. On the military side, two scout rangers are killed and four wounded. In Agusan del Sur, 14 insurgents are killed and scores wounded. In an ambush in Quezon province the rebels wipe out a platoon of soldiers killing 21 men and wounding five others.
1987, Sep 7. Two concrete bridges in the Bicol region, one in Tara, Sipocot and the other in San Fernando, both in the province of Camarines Sur are dynamited by the NPA, cutting off land travel to the region except by rail.
1987, Sep 9. Another Bicol bridge in Guinobatan, Albay province is blown up by NPA rebels.
1987, Sep 10. The 26 members of the cabinet and the 4 commissioners of the Presidential Commission on Good Government resign in a government shake-up as a result of the August 28 mutiny.
1987, Sep 16. Vice-President Salvador Laurel resigns as Secretary of Foreign Affairs because of basic policy differences about the approach to insurgency problems.
1987, Sep 19. The Secretary General of the leftist group Bagong Alyansang Makabayan or BAYAN, Lean Alejandro, is ambushed and killed by unidentified men at approximately 17:00 in Cubao, Quezon City.
1987, Sep 20. Some 500 rebels hijack a Manila bound train, ride into the town of Del Gallego, Camarines Sur, and attack the police and PC detachments. Killed are 17 rebels, 2 soldiers, 3 policemen and 2 militiamen. The rebels thereafter blow up Quilbay railway bridge cutting the Bicol-Manila rail service.
1987, Sep 24. The military begins its counter offensive against the communists in the Bicol region using three helicopter gunships firing rockets at a battalion size force of rebels in Ragay, Camarines Sur.
1987, Oct 1. The National Democratic Front begins establishing provisional revolutionary local governments in many parts of The Country .
1987, Oct 18. The first Philippine saint, Lorenzo Ruiz, is canonized in Rome.
1987, Oct 31. 30 communist rebels die in a no let-up offensive of a military group in Ilocos Sur under the command of Lt. Col. Felix Brawner.
1987, Nov 6. Through its spokesman Satur Ocampo, the NDF warns the US to stop meddling in Philippine affairs otherwise they will pay with more American lives.
1987, Nov 6. President Aquino signs Rep. Act No. 1 into law, the first law passed by the new Congress. This law sets the first local election under the Aquino administration for January 18, 1988.
1987, Nov 7. An umbrella organization of all vigilantes in Metro Manila, called the Manila Crusaders for Peace and Democracy, is organized. A former vigilante group was organized in Manila on June 19, 1987 exclusively composed of barangay chairmen.
1987, Nov 11. Polytechnic University of the Philippines President Nemesio Prudente, a known leftist, is ambushed and wounded in Sta. Mesa by a group of unidentified gunmen.
1987, Nov 26. Typhoon Sisang (international code name: Nina) hits the southern Tagalog and Bicol regions with winds of 185 km/hr (116 mil/hr). 656 persons die and more than 500,000 people are rendered homeless. The typhoon destroys 550 million pesos worth of property and crops.
1987, Dec 7. Former Finance Secretary Jaime Ongpin is found dead in his Makati office. Probers rule it suicide although some mystery surrounds the incident.
1987, Dec 10. After 104 days, the leader of the August 28 coup attempt, Gringo Honasan, is arrested in Valle Verde, Metro Manila.
1987, Dec 11. 2 policemen are killed in Quezon City by 5 unidentified men believed to be members of the NPA. They are Maj. Rolando Manahan and Sgt. Oscar Galleron. Since July, 16 military personnel and policemen have been killed in Metro Manila by NPA gunmen, called sparrows.
1987, Dec 20. The passenger ship Dona Paz and the oil tanker MV Vector collide in the seas between the islands of Mindoro and Romblon and sink in waters 530m (1738ft) deep. Of the more than 3,000 passengers of the Dona Paz, only 26 survive. This disaster is said to be the worst peacetime sea tragedy topping the 1912 Titanic disaster in the Atlantic.
1988, Jan 18. Local elections for governors, vice governors, city and town mayors and vice mayors and provincial and municipal councilmen are held. 80% of the 27.6 million registered voters cast their votes. From the first day of the campaign to election day, 98 people were killed in election related violence, 38 of them candidates. 97 persons were wounded of whom 12 were candidates; out of 40 persons kidnapped, 13 are candidates.
1988, Feb 2. Local officials elected Jan 18 assume office. Their terms last until Jun 30, 1992.
1988, Mar 11. To counteract the threat of war in Mindanao, the government creates the Regional Consultative Commission. The commission is given the task to draft a charter for an autonomous region in Mindanao. The body is composed of 55 members, 27 from electoral districts in Mindanao and 28 others chosen by President Aquino. The secretariat is based in Zamboanga City.
1988, Mar 29. The NPA's celebration of its 19th foundation anniversary is marred by the capture of 5 of its top leaders. They are Rafael Baylosis, Benjamin de Vera, Maria-Gloria Jopson Asuncion, Mario Asuncion, and the suspected NPA chief Romulo Kintanar.
1988, Apr 2. August 2 coup attempt leader Gringo Honasan escapes from his prison ship BRP Andres Bonifacio together with 14 of his guards.
1988, Jun 15. Two foreigners and a Filipino of foreign descent are arrested in Lucena City, Quezon province, for alleged involvement in the Philippine insurgency and particularly for participation in a guerrilla raid in San Francisco, Quezon, February 1988. The three are Stellan Hermanson, a Swede, Klaus Schmidt, German, and Antonio Bosch, a Filipino of German descent. They are released after several weeks of detention.
1988, Oct 18. Foreign Secretary Raul Manglapus and the US Secretary of State George Shultz sign a new agreement on the US military bases in the Philippines. The new accord provides for US payments of 481 million dollars each year until the agreement expires in 1991. The sum consists of Economic Support Fund (ESF), 160 million; Military Assistance (grants), 200 million; Development Assistance and Food Aid, 95 million; and Housing Investment Guarantees, 25 million. In the days following the signing of the new accord, Foreign Secretary Raul Manglapus is widely criticized as the agreed payments are far below his original target of 1.2 billion.
1988, Oct 19. The military begins an offensive against the NPA in southern Leyte. During a two day battle near Alguerra, 136 NPA members are killed according to military claims.
1988, Oct 21. A US federal grand jury in New York indicts deposed President Ferdinand Marcos and his wife Imelda in a 268 million dollars racketeering scheme, including looting the Philippine treasury of 103 million dollars and defrauding US banks of 165 million dollars.
1988, Oct 24. In heavy weather caused by typhoon Unsang (international code name: Ruby), the Philippine inter-island vessel Dona Marilyn sinks with more than 600 passengers and crew members on board. The vessel belonged to Sulpicio Lines, the company that also owned the Dona Paz which sank on Dec 20, 1987 with more than 3,000 people aboard. The Dona Marilyn accident is survived by some 300 people. Apart from the victims of the sinking of the Dona Marilyn, typhoon Unsang causes the death of some 200 people in the southern Philippines.
1988, Oct 31. Imelda Marcos is arraigned in court in Manhattan, New York. She pleads not guilty to the racketeering charges brought against her and deposed President Ferdinand Marcos. The arraignment of Ferdinand Marcos was delayed by a federal judge in New York for health reasons.
1988, Nov 3. Imelda Marcos is allowed to return to Honolulu after American millionaires Doris Duke put up more than 5 million dollars bail for the former Philippine first lady.
1988, Nov 6. The alleged Secretary-General of the CPP, Ignacio Capegsan, is arrested at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport while trying to leave for the US.
1988, Nov 8. Typhoon Yoning sweeps over Palawan, bringing to the island the worst destruction in half a century. Again, more than 200 people die in landslides and floods.
1988, Nov 12. The suspected NPA chief Romulo Kintanar and his common-law wife Maria-Gloria Jopson escape from detention in Camp Crame, the headquarters of the Philippine Constabulary.
1988, Nov 14. The US Supreme Court orders the Marcoses to hand over to the prosecuting authorities financial records and handwriting samples as well as to agree being fingerprinted or to face contempt charges. The Marcoses comply on Nov 18, 1988.
1989, Mar 1. President Cory Aquino vows a far reaching deregulation of the Philippine economy. In a speech on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Asian Institute of Management in Manila she says: "We must not only loosen, we must release completely the stranglehold of regulation that is choking private initiative and turning off local and foreign investments and discouraging development assistance." But not much happens thereafter.
1989, Mar 9 to 10. 47 NPA rebels die in a 2 day battle with government forces in Lupon, Davao Oriental.
1989, Apr 21. US Army Col James Rowe, chief of the ground forces division of the joint US Military Advisory Group (JUSMAG) is killed in a communist ambush. He is the highest US official killed by the NPA up to that time.
1989, May 8. Hans Juergen Tittel, a German mining executive, is shot in an ambush in Malate. Business rivalry is considered the motive behind the murder.
1989, Aug 15. 5 hostages, including an Australian missionary Jacqueline Hanill, and 16 prisoners die during a shoot-out rescue operation at Davao Metropolitan District Command jail.
1989, Sep 26. US Vice-President Quayle visits the Philippines; 2 US civilians die in an ambush of NPA rebels in Tarlac province.
1989, Sep 28. Deposed President Marcos (born Sep 11, 1917) dies at 18:40 Manila time in Hawaii at age 72; President Aquino refuses a burial in the Philippines.
1989, Oct 6. Typhoon Rubing hits northern Luzon and kills 116.
1989, Oct 11. Typhoon Saling kills 55 in Manila and southern Luzon.
1989, Nov 9. Muslim rebels attack a military convoy in Lanao del Sur, Mindanao at 8:15 and kill 2 Austrians while wounding 4 other Austrians, 3 soldiers and 2 Filipino civilians.
1989, Nov 16. An US anthropological conference in Washington, D.C. confirms the authenticity of the Tasaday stone age tribe in Mindanao. In previous months, the Tasaday discovery of 1971 was repeatedly branded as a hoax.
1989, Nov 19. A plebiscite is held in a number of provinces in Mindanao and on Palawan to decide on the so-called Mindanao Organic Act, granting these provinces limited autonomy; only 4 provinces vote in favor.
1989, Nov 29. 30 rebel Scout Rangers disable army communications equipment in the south of Manila. As it later appears, the group didn't look at the calendar properly and acted a day too soon.
1989, Nov 30. Late at night, mutinous soldiers start the so-called December coup attempt. A group of rebel Marines capture and block the runway of Villamor Air Base; rebels also take over TV channels 2 and 4 in Quezon City.
1989, Dec 1. In the early morning, rebel Scout Rangers capture several military commanders, seize tanks at Fort Bonifacio and take control of Mactan Airport in Cebu. In Manila, rebel Tora-Tora planes bomb Malacanang Palace; rebel helicopters set buildings afire in two major military camps in Metro Manila, the Army Headquarters Camp Aguinaldo and the Constabulary Headquarters Camp Crame. The rebels, with their control of the air space over Metro Manila first seem to have the upper hand; large contingents of the Philippine military are not available to the government while at the same time they do not actively join the rebels. Because of the wait-and-see attitude of much of her own military, President Aquino requests the help of the US. In the early afternoon, US F-4 fighters appear in the sky over Metro Manila. The impression is that these F-4's actively engage in dog-fights with the rebels, destroying their Tora-Tora force at Sangley Point, Cavite, and later providing air cover to the Malacanang Palace. After the rebellion is put down, the importance of the US interference is continously belittled by the government. For fear of being considered a US lackay, the government insists that the US fighters did by no means play an active role in the battle. Their presence will be branded persuasion flights.
1989, Dec 2. Government aircraft attack by mistake loyalist troops and civilians; rebels move into condominiums and five-star hotels in Makati and hold thousands of residents and tourists captive.
1989, Dec 3. Loyalists repulse a rebel pre-dawn attack on Camps Aguinaldo and Crame.
1989, Dec 4 to 5. Rebel soldiers and government troops remain in a kind of stalemate in Makati. While the rebels are not strong enough anymore to seriously endanger the government, the loyal military cannot make any major move against the rebels for fear of killing civilians, mainly foreigners in the rebel-seized five-star hotels.
1989, Dec 6. Civilians are allowed to evacuate Makati; among them are hundreds of foreigners who were for days virtual hostages of the rebels. President Aquino declares a state of national emergency.
1989, Dec 7. In the early morning, the rebels in Makati return to their barracks. While they were not able to topple the government, they don't give the impression of being defeated either. On their return to the barracks they remain fully armed, and actually, many of them are jubilant as in a victory parade.
1990, Jan 1. 9 die and some 2,000 are injured in New Year's merry making.
1990, Feb 2 to 7. 128 NPA rebels are slain during a 5-day offensive of the military on Mindanao.
1990, Feb 8 to 12. An earthquake with several after-shocks rocks Cebu and Bohol. It causes considerable damage on Bohol (but not to the extent that the Chocolate Hills became mousses).
1990, Feb 27. The lone Philippine opposition Senator, Juan Ponce Enrile, is arrested in the Senate building on charges of rebellion complexed with murder. He is accused of having met suspected coup leader Gringo Honasan during the December rebellion of 1989.
1990, Mar 4. During heavy fighting between government troops and armed men loyal to Cagayan Governor Rodolfo Aguinaldo, Brig. Gen. Oscar Florendo is fatally shot. Florendo was a member of a government party which went to the capital of Cagayan province, Tuguegarao, to arrest Aguinaldo. Like Enrile, Aguinaldo was accused of having aided the rebels in the failed December coup.
1990, Mar 6. The Supreme Court orders the release of Senator Enrile on 100,000 pesos bail. Enrile posts the demanded amount and is freed at 21:10.
1990, Mar 25. The International Airport at Laoag, Ilocos Norte, reopens. It had been closed after the EDSA revolution to bar Marcos' return.
1990, May 4. US Marine Gunnery Sergant John Fredette is slain in Olongapo City by either drug addicts, as civilian authorities claim, or by the NPA, as alleged by US military sources.
1990, May 13. Two US airmen, John Raven, 21, and James Green, 22, are fatally shot by NPA sparrows at 20:20 as they leave a hotel in Dau, Mabalacat, Pampanga near the US air base Clark.
1990, May 14. Representatives of the US and the Philippines meet at the Central Bank building in Malate, Manila to begin exploratory talks which would allow the US to keep its bases in the Philippines
1990, May 18. In the morning, unidentified men lob two rifle grenades at the US Thomas Jefferson Cultural Center in Makati without injuries or damage. In the afternoon exporatory talks end in agreement that full discussion of US-Philippine relations may begin in a few months.
1990, May 28. The US State Deartment issues a warning about travel to the Philippines during bases talks.
1990, Jun 12. A tornado strikes Sityo Siparok, Manukan in Zamboanga del Norte at 19:00 killing 50 people.
1990, Jun 28. In view of NPA threats, the US Peace Corps suspends operations in the Philippines and orders 261 volunters to Hawaii
1990, Jul 16. An earthquake of intensity between 6 and 7 shakes Luzon and Manila. The epicenter is 10 kms southeast of Cabanatuan City. Buildings and roads over a wide area suffer damage. About 1,600 people die.